National measures for Moral Education
This moralcapital workroom begins the task of identifying the national characteristics which deserve to be measured since they indicate the context within which moral education takes place. Faced with global uncertainties and fears, appeals to a sense of national identity are very common. Nationalism can be a potent force for both good and evil. In a moral education portal, it is useful to consider whether there are measurable criteria which will reveal morally relevant features of any national context.
There is space here to consider what databases can be used for the purpose of reviewing each nation in turn. In compiling national portraits the following features have been identified as a starting point. To accompany an outline map, plus the national flag and some sample pictures, the following features are examined:
- the national economies and exposure to climate change
- population and life expectancy, natal care, diet and drug use, alcohol and tobacco use, HIV/AIDS, and mental health
- educational provision
- human rights
- religious identifications
- military strength + weapons trade
- sustainable development.
Astonishingly comprehensive and detailed data base covering every country in up-to-date detail. Suspicion regarding possibilities of political bias are healthy, but not easy to substantiate. No American President can change the information publicly recorded here. For each country there is a section identifying current transnational issues affecting it. Incidentally, its Kids Zone has some basic games to encourage geographical awareness, visual perception, and code breaking skills.
Perhaps surprisingly, the World Bank Group says its mission is to “End extreme poverty within a generation and boost shared prosperity”. It operates the International Development Association (IDA) through which 173 countries collaborate in providing interest-free loans to the world’s poorest countries, with grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities, and improve people’s living conditions. Its website gives access to economic data on individual countries, to the latest global reports exemplified in the chart: 2.4 Billion People Live Without Access to Toilets, and to webinairs and relevant online courses. These last feature on the Learning component of the multi-lingual website, eg the recent postings of Our Buggy Moral Code and Empathic Civilisation.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation)
The founding belief of UNESCO in 1945 was that Peace must be established on the basis of humanity’s moral and intellectual solidarity. It “encourages international peace and universal respect for human rights by promoting collaboration among nations”. It sees the life-transforming human right of education to be at the heart of its mission “to build peace, eradicate poverty and drive sustainable development”. Under its programme heading Learning to Live Together it focuses on the following themes: Social Transformations, Intercultural Dialogue, Democracy and Global Citizenship, Building Peace, Sport and Anti-doping, and Health Education. Amongst its website’s many learning resources are huge databases and a remarkable Photo Bank.
World Health Organisation (WHO)
WHO’s goal is to work with governments to ensure the highest attainable level of health for all people by combating all kinds of diseases. “We help mothers and children survive and thrive so they can look forward to a healthy old age. We ensure the safety of the air people breathe, the food they eat, the water they drink – and the medicines and vaccines they need.” It operates with a set of clearly defined ethical principles, including safeguarding of ‘whistleblowers’. Its website provides detailed information on a fully comprehensive range of Health Topics, plus a Global Health Observatory data base designed to monitor progress towards health and health- related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Human Rights Watch
This is a global NGO comprising human rights professionals, lawyers, journalists, and academics of diverse backgrounds and nationalities. Over 50 years it has established a reputation for accurate fact-finding, impartial reporting, effective use of media, and targeted advocacy. “We scrupulously investigate abuses, expose the facts widely, and pressure those with power to respect rights and secure justice.” Its focal topics are: arms, business, children’s rights, environment, free speech, health, international justice, LGBT rights, migrants, refugee rights, terrorism/counterterrorism torture, United Nations, and women’s rights. Along with the many HRW reports, the website provides access to its video and photo collection.
Global Fire Power
An independent website culling publicly available information on the following aspects of military power: MANPOWER:total populations and available manpower – fit for service and reaching military age annually. SYSTEMS: tanks; armoured fighting vehicles; self-propelled guns; towed artillery pieces; rocket projectors. AIR POWER: total aircraft; fighters / interceptors; attack aircraft; transport aircraft’; trainer aircraft; helicopters; attack helicopters; serviceable airports. NAVAL POWER: total strength; aircraft carriers; frigates; destroyers; corvettes; submarines; patrol craft; mine warfare. RESOURCES: oil production; oil consumption; proven oil reserves LOGISTICAL: labour force; merchant marine strength; major ports and terminals; roadway coverage; railway coverage. FINANCIAL: annual defence budget; external debt; reserves of foreign exchange and gold; purchasing power parity.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
SIPRI is funded by an annual grant from the Swedish government following its creation by an Act of Parliament in 1966. It is a highly respected think tank which draws on open sources to provide reliable data, analysis and recommendations to “to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public”. By such means it is working for “a world in which sources of insecurity are identified and understood, conflicts are prevented or resolved, and peace is sustained”. It produces an Annual Yearbook and its website provides access to the following databases: ARMS TRANSFERS DATABASE– all such since 1950. ARMS INDUSTRY– the100 largest arms-producing and military services companies. MULTILATERAL PEACE OPERATIONS - all peace operations conducted since 2000, including location, dates of deployment and operation, mandate, participating countries, number of personnel, costs and fatalities. MILITARY EXPENDITURE annual military spending of countries since 1988. In addition it gives information on arms control and disarmament, arms embargoes and an estimate of the financial value of the global arms trade.
Association of Religion Data Archives
From an initial US focus, this online data base is now becoming an internationally inclusive resource with access to all known collections pertaining to religion. It is intended for use by educators, journalists, faith communities and researchers. Its scope is cross national as well as national. Its interactive timeline focuses on North American events and biographies since the 17th century. Its Quickstats component provides data on topical themes such as: Attitudes About moral issues - abortion, homosexuality, sexual morality; About religion and politics - public display of religious symbols, prayer in public schools; About religion/spirituality - importance of converting others; About science - are science and religion incompatible? evolution. And under Politics it gives views on abolition of death penalty, social welfare spending and the decision to go into Iraq.
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
This is one of the wings of the United. Its priorities are: 1 eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition, 2 the elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all, 3 the sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land, water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future generations. The website provides access to multi-media resources and a range of focal themes including: Animal health and production, Antimicrobial Resistance, Aquaculture, Biodiversity, Biotechnology, Child Labour in Agriculture, Climate change, Decent Rural Employment, Ecosystem Services & Biodiversity, El Niño, Environmental and Social Standards, Family farming, Fisheries, Food chain crisis, Food loss and food waste, Genetic resources, Hunger and Malnutrition, Indigenous peoples, Livestock and the environment, Migration, Nutrition, Peste des petits ruminants, Right to Food, School food, Seeds, South-South Cooperation, Sustainable Food and Agriculture, Trade, Urban agriculture, Water, World Food Situation, Zika virus.
How to make the most of what’s here
In the next workroom, you can scroll down till you find any country you are looking for. Alternatively, use the search box.
If you have the time and want to take a systematic approach, try the following:
1. Start with one country and explore each of its given contours.
2. Then choose another country and explore that in the same way. Then perhaps another.
3. Within any country you find yourself in, try putting on the hat of one of its ‘nationalists’ and asking such universal questions as the following:
- what makes this country so special relative to any other?
- what counts as being rich or poor?
- is there climate vulnerability here?
- in health care does one person’s life matter more than another’s?
- by what criteria can good education be measured?
- Where do animal, human, national and religious rights come from?
- how do appeals to conscience differ from religious convictions?
- should there be any minimum or maximum for military spending, or maintaining public order?
- what can be done nationally to make human life more sustainable?
Stretching of geographical horizons by exploring contours within our own countries and then extending them from national to international consciousness can reveal surprises which may also lead to a deepening of moral sense.
There are several other websites people may find useful, although there is inevitably some overlap between sites, some have a wider focus than others, and some are more user-friendly than others.
Gapminder has been developed from Sweden and encourages comparisons between different countries. In its BUBBLES charts, it converts statistical data into more visually accessible picture format covering such topics as income per person, population size and life expectancy. In its DOLLAR STREET, it juxtaposes photos of families from different countries, selected according to income level, population size and life expectancy.
Our World in Data hosts an open access collection of articles on a range of issues affecting the world. They are catalogued under the headings: health; demographic change; food and agriculture; education and knowledge; energy and environment; innovation and technological change; poverty and economic development; living conditions; community and wellbeing; human rights and democracy; violence and war. The aim of the website is to produce ‘research and data to make progress against the world’s largest problems’. (Many of the latest additions to the site deal with Covid.) An email newsletter is available.
World Values Survey ‘is a global network of social scientists studying changing values and their impact on social and political life’. It does not cover every single country, but does claim to cover nearly 90% of the world’s population. Its aim is ‘to help scientists and policy makers understand changes in the beliefs, values and motivations of people throughout the world.’ The website present the findings from its own questionnaire research.
UNdata is a searchable website containing information on every country arranged under four basic headings: general information; economic indicators; social indicators; environmental and infrastructure indicators. The data held on the site can be explored on a regional as well as a national basis.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) collates information on crime and drugs from around the world. Results are displayed in both map and table form, allowing easy comparisons.
NationMaster brings together facts and figures from all around the world arranged in 26 main categories: agriculture, background, conflict, cost of living, crime, disasters, economy, education, energy, environment, geography, government, health, industry, labour, language, lifestyle, media, military, people, religion, sports, terrorism, travel, transport and weather. Each of these is further divided into many others, giving over 5,000 different categories in all. One of the useful features of NationMaster is its ability to provide an instant comparison between any two countries in terms of any of those 5,000+ categories. (NB This website carries a lot of prominent advertisements of various kinds.)
- Saudi Arabia
- Sierra Selone
- Slovak Republic
- South Africa
- South Sudan
- Sri Lanka