Military Strength + Weapons Exports
1906 - 1983
South Africa England
Social anthropologist and psychologist, who engaged in extensive fieldwork amongst Ashanti and Tallensi tribespeople of West Africa. He developed an interpretative framework for understanding the moral and religious significance of kin relations, and expounded the notion of African plurality.
Short film of Meyer Fortes (2 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdRq1GqiYOc
GLUCKMAN, Max Herman
1911 - 1975
South Africa England
Social anthropologist, drawing on extensive fieldwork with central African societies. This included close attention to role definitions and reversals as fundamental for social cohesion. Also active in support for anti-colonial initiatives.
1923 - 2014
White S African novelist and non-fiction writer, read even more widely outside her country than within. Her recurrent theme is the struggle for racial equality during and after the Apartheid era, and for African self-rule. She was a forthright moral crusader, a social realist at once critically aware and vividly imaginative.
Nadine Gordimer: short film (3 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RduULvXdPS4
1918 - 2013
Central figure in the struggle against Apartheid and the peaceful transformation of S Africa into a ‘Rainbow’ country of politically equal races. He first became politically active in the early 1940s, joining the African National Congress in 1944. Having trained as a lawyer, with his colleague Oliver Tambo he set up the first black law firm in S Africa in 1952. His arrest and life-imprisonment for Association with the armed struggle only ended in 1990 – and his emergence marked the birth of the new S Africa and his reconciliatory role as President. He set out to challenge inherited antipathies and though he was effective in this, especially through personal example and the work of the Peace and Reconciliation Commission, tribal and racial tension, incidents of blatant self-serving, foolish ignorance and corrosive corruption persist. The high regard in which he was already held internationally during his prison years has been magnified since to the extent that he represents not only black resistance, but all human resistance against oppression.
Nelson Mandela's life story (14 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jgQBoXsxr8w
1858 - 1928
Enoch Mgijima founded the S African ‘Israelites in 1912 – a liberation movement against external oppression by people identifying themselves as African Jews. They observed the Sabbath, celebrated the Passover and as Chosen People expected delivery from white man’s bondage. They also dismissed the New Testament component of the Bible as a European forgery. Instead they were quashed with a massacre by the military power of the state. Thereafter successive governments were suspicious of religious interference in politics. Experience globally suggests that by definition deepest beliefs do impact on politics, as on social and moral action generally. Whilst recognising the principle of freedom of religious belief, public education can legitimately encourage open scholarly scrutiny of the nature and basis of religions. Without this both believer and unbeliever suffer from their relative ignorance,
1915 - 2004
Though originally a member of the Afrikaner Broederbond and an ordained minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, he subsequently campaigned against the policy of Apartheid as editor of the journal Pro Veritate and Director of the Christian Institute of S Africa. These were at the core of ecumenical (across racial, cultural and denominational differences) opposition to Apartheid.
Beyers Naude on the Sharpeville massacre (5 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjB-8Jc7ODo
Moral Regeneration Movement