National Contours for Moral Education: Switzerland
Military Strength + Weapons Exports
1886 - 1968
Greatly influential Protestant theologian, seared by his experience as a pastor during World War 1. The affirmative association of many of his Christian mentors with the Kaiser’s military cause led him to question the ease with which their faith had been ‘captured’ by the liberality of modern culture rather than the radical call of revelation and the ‘otherness’ of God. His multi-volume, 9000+ pages, Church Dogmatics drawing on centuries of previous writings is a magisterial restatement of what he set out as a proper Christian orthodoxy. His footnotes in themselves are major studies of other thinkers including ones outside the Christian faith, eg Ludwig Feuerbach. He was a leader in the German church struggle against Nazism, drafting 1934 Barmen Declaration. He expounds ethics as response to divine command, but sensitive to local circumstance. He was passionate about Mozart and was very knowledgeable about military history.
Karl Barth on Revelation (German with English subtitles) (2 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e2jbc03ujLk
1879 - 1955
Switzerland, Germany, United St
1877 - 1962
Poet and writer whose novels explore the challenge for any individual in building an integrated personal identity - a fully harmonious self. Self-realisation was a priority encouraged by his engagement with Jungian ‘individuation’ and subsequent exposure to eastern mystical traditions especially in Indian and Chinese Philosophy. He pursues the theme of search for selfhood in relation to such experiences as monastic calling, incest, and yen for utopia.
Hermann Hesse's long summer, part 1 (14 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SJNVAlm9Gc
JUNG, Carl G
1875 - 1961
Eminent psychiatrist who developed comprehensive theories of the human personality, including different generic types and components and the notion of the collective unconscious. The types were introversion and extroversion, plus the four functioning properties of thinking and feeling (the rational pair) and of sensation and intuition (the irrational pair). He disagreed with Freud regarding the determinative influence of libidinal/sexual drives, instead emphasising the importance of spiritual/meaning energies. Moral and religious maturity is the outcome of the process of individuation wherein a person makes sense of their inherited given-ness in their current living context.
Face to Face with Carl Gustav Jung (38 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2AMu-G51yTY
1746 - 1827
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a teacher with a mission to educate the poor and neglected. Influenced by the thinking of Rousseau and a personal sense of Christian care. In a succession of different schools, mainly elementary but subsequently secondary, he implemented a way of working with children which sought to engage their interest as a prerequisite for effective learning – heart led then head and actively hands-on.
1896 - 1980
SOCIAL SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY
Hugely influential researcher into the development of children’s intelligence. From an initial background in Zoology (his first paper in an academic journal at the age of ten was on the sparrow) he moved to Psychology, becoming the leading international exponent of psychogenetically sequenced stages of cognitive development. Much of his research was carried out with his own children and those in his school in Geneva – but replicated by others throughout the world. His work on moral development included the now familiar egocentricity-heteronomy-autonomy sequence. Over intellectualised readings of his work miss the importance he attributed to play and symbol and their relevance for moral sense.
Piaget on Piaget (42 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XwjIruMI94
1484 - 1531
Ulrich Zwingli was a Christian who is grouped alongside Calvin and Luther as a leading initiator of the Protestant Reformation. He drew on scholarship in biblical languages, historical theology and philosophy, experience as a military chaplain, and association with a pilgrimage centre – together these led him to challenge many traditional beliefs as superstitious and self-serving. It is individual experience which is the proper test of truth claims in ethics and religion.