National Contours for Moral Education: Hungary
Military Strength + Weapons Exports
1878 - 1965
German educated, Jewish social philosopher for whom engagement with Hasidic life and thought and threat from Nazism inspired relocation to Palestine in 1938. His Zionist commitment was qualified by a sense of territory shared with Palestinians; he was a ‘Hebrew Humanist’. He published and lectured widely but his I and Thou book is what he is best known for. Whilst he was critical of self-centredness in philosophy, his own focus on the specialness of I-Thou relations led to criticism that that undervalues more inclusive I-You ones. He is central to the development of Jewish-Christian dialogue with its spirit of mutual appreciation, rooted in a sense of the ‘Eternal Thou’.
1860 - 1904
From a progressive Jewish background, and with legal training, his awareness of the strength of anti-semitism was heightened during the notorious Dreyfus trial in France. This led him to argue that the establishment of a Jewish national homeland was the only solution. Initially he did not believe that this needed necessarily to be in Palestine, but annual meetings of the newly formed World Zionist Organisation (he was elected President) persuaded him that S American or African alternatives would not be acceptable to many Jews.
Theodor Herzl - the founder of Zionism (3 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7um59knzmGo
1905 - 1983
Being a refugee and subsequent prisoner because of his Jewish birthright and political activism, he moved to Palestine and across Europe, living in Russia, Fance, Spain and especially the UK. In newspaper articles, theoretical treatises and political novels, he produced persuasive commentaries and critiques of both the theory and practice of communism, and traditional religious orthodoxies. Latterly, he became especially interested in parapsychological research. He was certainly independent minded; he was also felt by many to have been personally obstreperous. His writings combine a strong sense of historical perspective and of science; together they shape the intelligent humanism which he vigorously lived by. He also died by it, choosing with his wife the moment when their lives should end.
1893 - 1947
Hungary Germany England
SOCIAL SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY
One of founders of sociology of knowledge as a background to education and political planning