Historical Who is Who


1632 - 1677


From a background that had experienced religious persecution, Baruch Spinoza applied philosophical reasoning and evidence based research to both ethics and religion. Any truth which they might legitimately claim is properly based in the same reasoned argumentation as is found in mathematics. Goodness and Godness are given in the nature of the universe – a view which led to his being given a  lifetime ban by the Jewish community (also placed on the Vatican Index) and his generally being categorised as a pantheist. Moral learning requires recognition of any irrational feelings and influences plus a determination to act differently.

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