Historical Who is Who


1878 – 1947
Russia, United Kingdom


Idiosyncratic explorer of the bounds of human understanding. From a background in the natural sciences he became convinced of what he called the ‘fourth dimension’. His thinking coincided with that of Gurdjieff with whom he collaborated intermittently. Highly regarded by contemporary British intellectuals when he moved to London in the 1920s, opinions of his scholarship range from brilliant wisdom to speculative twaddle.

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