Historical Who is Who

CHU HSI (Zhu Xi)

1130 - 1200


Seen by his contemporaries as a re-interpreter and apologist for the writings of and thinking of the Confucian literati tradition, his own writings came to be more authoritative in themselves than many of those of his predecessors – now the  ‘Four Books’ rather than the ‘Five Classics’. From hereon till the start of 20th century The Four Books were fundamental for civil service examinations. He was critical of Buddhist thinking which he considered to be morally destructive of personal development. Instead, he affirmed the centrality of Li within all material life – a deep reality which deserves to be pondered and sensed by individuals if they are to grow in wisdom. This is the basis for moral education.



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