Historical Who is Who


1863 - 1950
United States


Hehaka Sapaand Nicholas Black Elk is one of the best known Native Americans. His experience spans the early years of conflict with the white man ‘settlers’, travelling to England and Europe with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, and later life as a Roman Catholic convert. His writings (orally shared and developed – he was largely illiterate and going blind) are authentic sources of the religious life of the Lakota. They include healing and dance traditions – from his own ill health and dream experiences he became a medicine man/shaman. They also reveal his lifelong concern for harmony with the natural world and between peoples.


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