Historical Who is Who


1874 - 1948
Russia + France


His familiarity with Marxist philosophy from his early academic years, stayed with him when he espoused the thinking and beliefs of the Russian Orthodox Church and into the decade leading to the Revolution. He was a critical believer who challenged the superficial theocracy of Tsarist culture, but he also questioned the emergent version of Marxism. His independent mindedness cost him his position teaching Philosophy at Moscow University; he left for Berlin in 1922. From 1924 onwards he lived, wrote and taught in or near Paris, with an increasing intellectual following. His theology was distinctive in its focus on the prospect of spiritual transformation – different from both legal conformity and the socialist optimism of Marxism which he saw as dangerously oppressive of human freedom. Creative energy is the source of genuine freedom.



This website uses cookies to improve your user experience. By using the site, you agree to our use of cookies. For more information about how we use cookies click here.