Born into a Bengali Hindu background in Calcutta, he was sent to England at the age of 9, where his studies culminated at Cambridge University. He became adept in several European languages and widely read, returning to India after 14 years, initially to work in state administration, to publish poetry and engage in local politics. These last led to his campaigning against British rule, for which he was imprisoned. He spent the second half of his life in Pondicherry (a French enclave), practising a distinctive version of Yoga which was designed to bring into human reality a present sense of divine being. This became central to the life of an ashram, run by his mother (Mirra Richard) and himself (later centre of the town Auroville). His beliefs are set out in his extensive writings. He embodied an ethical mysticism.
These are extensive. They can be downloaded from: http://www.sriaurobindoashram.org/ashram/sriauro/writings.php
vols 21-2 The Life Divine
vols 23-4 Synthesis of Yoga
vols 25 The Ideal of Human Unity
Life of Sri Aurobindo (10 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6iOjTkqiCk