Digest of terms


hostility between peoples, especially in modern times nations, which usually involves large-scale physical violence ('hot' war) or the unremitting threat thereof ('cold' war). War is evidenced throughout human history, and it is doubtful that large scale societies have ever existed as in the long term fully peaceful. By contrast there are claims from anthropologists that warfare is not endemic to small-scale societies. The claim that war is a male gendered activity may cite some credence from Aristophanes' tale in which war between Athenians and Spartans is ended through wives going on a 'sex strike'. However, the association of women in many different forms of war effort is widely documented, while traditional patriarchy accounts for the historical prevalence of men in both occasioning and conducting war.

A focus on conflict and its resolution is an important ingredient in moral education. (holy war, just war, pacifism,peace).

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