Digest of terms


painful emotion arising from having said or done something which is sensed to have been 'wrong' or in some way hurtful to another or even oneself. It is reported by anthropologists to be universal - and by ethologists also to be found in some other animals. Though culturally variable in its specific prompts, embarrassment at 'loss of face' in front of others or against the expectations of some internal marker or conscience is usually involved. So is some physical accompaniment, eg in body temperature or eye movement.

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