Digest of terms
racially based system of social segregation developed in South Africa under Afrikaaner rule. It operated formally 1948-94, though its assumptions and associated inequalities were evident much earlier and have persisted since. The racial differentiation derived from a particular version of Dutch Calvinism which invoked justification from race-related differences mentioned in the biblical book of Genesis. Four separate categories were used: black, coloured, Indian and white. General social intercourse between them, and especially of any sexual and/or marital kind was illegal.